Common Beech tree identification 

The Common Beech Fagus sylvatica is the dominant tree of woodlands in south and central England.  It grows strongly on well-drained chalk soils found, for example, in The Chilterns. It does not like wet ground. It has been planted in woods, gardens and parks throughout Britain. Beech wood from The Chilterns was used as firewood for London, then when coal replaced it, for furniture. Common Beech tree identification is by its leaves, fruit and bark. It is a large tree and can grow to 40m. In some years there is a huge crop of oil-rich beech nuts. These are known as ‘mast’ years where ‘mast’ is an old word for ‘fruit of the forest’. In former times pigs were fattened up on beech nuts and acorns prior to going to market. Click on any photo to enlarge it.

common beech tree

Tree in May.

beech tree leaf

Leaves have wavy edges and no teeth. They have 5 to 9 veins. They are fresh green like this in May when first formed.

beech tree leaves

Leaves in mid July are dark green.

beech tree  male and female flowers

Male and female flowers are on the same tree. In this photo the male flowers are hanging down and releasing pollen which will be carried by the wind. The female flower is at the top. Photo taken in early May.

beech tree nuts

The fruit is in the form of two nuts inside a husk. The crop of nuts is called ‘mast’ and for centuries was used to fatten up pigs. This photo shows a pair of triangular Beech nuts inside an open husk in August. Often the nuts are dry but in ‘mast’ years, every 4 years or so, they are fat and edible.

beech tree bark

The bark is very smooth and grey. It is an ideal surface for carving.


A good way to identify the Common Beech in winter is by its buds. The buds are long and thin and each bud has many overlapping scales.

Lateral buds stick out from the shoot.

Tree in January