SPRUCE AND FIR TREE CONES
Spruce tree cones hang down and Fir tree cones stand upright. They also differ in the way the needles are attached to shoots (woody pegs for Spruce and pads for Firs). Here are the cones of 5 Spruce species and 5 Fir species. Note that Spruce cones are often found intact on the ground but Fir cones break up on the tree to shed their seeds and are rarely found intact on the ground. Fir cones are also often located at the top of the tree and diffucult to see from the ground.
European Silver Fir (fragment)