Willow trees identification
Four Willow species are shown here – White, Grey, Weeping and Goat Willow. For information on the Crack Willow click HERE. Willows and Poplars are closely related, have alternate buds and leaves but are easy to differentiate. Willow leaves are generally long and thin (apart from the Goat Willow) and have shorter and fatter catkins. Poplar leaves are triangular or diamond-shaped and catkins are long. For more information on Poplars click HERE.
Willows are pollinated by insects (Poplars are wind pollinated). Willows have male flowers on one tree and female flowers on another tree. Technically they are called ‘dioecious’ from the Greek meaning ‘2 households’. The flowers are in the form of catkins. Female and male catkins look different. Willow species easily form hybrids with other Willows. Some hybrids are natural and you may come across trees that have features of both parents. This makes identification very difficult even for experts.
Willow trees identification – White, Grey, Weeping and Goat Willow – tree shape, leaf shape, male and female catkins and buds. Click on any photo to enlarge it.
The White Willow (Salix alba) is native to Europe (including Britain), Asia and north Africa. It is common along rivers and lowland valleys. It is a large, impressive tree. The leaves are narrow but shorter than those of the Crack Willow and have silvery-white hairs. The tree looks strikingly white in summer.
The Grey Willow (Salix cinerea), also known as the Grey Sallow, is native to western Europe including Britain. It grows naturally everywhere. It is a shrub and rarely a tree. It can be confused with the Goat Willow but it has longer leaves and large ‘stipules’ at the base of each leaf.
The Weeping Willow (Salix alba ‘Tristis’), also called the Golden Weeping Willow, is a hybrid cultivated variety of the White Willow and 2 other willows, called, for simplicity, ‘Tristis’ which means ‘sad’. It sometimes has the name ‘Chrysocoma’ which means ‘golden-haired’. It is a male clone. It is common along rivers and in parks and gardens. It is one of the first willows to come into leaf, in March.
The Goat Willow (Salix caprea) is a shrub or small tree also known as Pussy Willow and Great Sallow. It is native to Europe (including Britain) and Asia. In Britain it is found everywhere in woodlands, scrub and hedgerows. The leaf is different from many other willows being oval shaped and with a tip that is bent sideways.The male catkins are yellow when full of pollen in March and April. The female catkins are green in April and shed fluffy seeds in May. The bark has criss-crossed ridges
The White Willow leaf is not as long as the Crack Willow. It has long white hairs on the upper surface. The leaves hang down and have a silvery-white appearance.
Grey Willow leaves, like all Willows, are alternate but unusually the shoots have stipules. These are tiny leaves at the base of full size leaves which identify the Grey Willow from other common willows.
Close-up of the White Willow male catkin in April, showing the yellow ‘anthers’ before releasing pollen